Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)
TPACK is a general approach to effective technology integration that works with any type of instructional planning. It is a learner-centered, outcomes-based planning approach in which technology supports learners meeting the outcomes in ways that make the most sense. As illustrated in the graphic, there are areas where Technological Knowledge (TK) intersects with Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) and/or Content Knowledge (CK).
In order to teach about/model the use of this framework, you will notice that advertised ERLC summer sessions that include technology integration now carry the TPACK logo with the appropriate section highlighted, to demonstrate where that session MOST correlates to the TPACK model.
This framework helps us to focus on designing learning and planning instruction by concentrating on the learning goals first, using them to inform pedagogical decisions, considering the specific content knowledge necessary and finally, deciding on how technology can best be used to support student intellectual engagement. It is important to emphasize that these spheres of knowledge are NOT separate entities…they are all interrelated. The TPACK framework is helpful in thinking about the dynamics of those interrelationships. To learn more about TPACK, see: http://tpack.org
As illustrated in the TPACK graphic, there are places where Technological Knowledge (TK) intersects with Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) and/or Content Knowledge (CK).
To clarify what those places of intersection may entail, short explanations appear below.
TPK is general teaching knowledge that you need to be able to use a variety of technologies effectively. E.g. For a particular activity is it more important for each student to have access to their own computer or more important for them to collaborate around one computer?
This can take somewhat of a classroom management focus.
TCK is the knowledge that teachers need to be able to select the most appropriate technology tools based on the nature of the content outcomes that students are trying to accomplish. E.g. While doing a brainstorming activity where it is important for students to be able to see the connections among the ideas, a teacher might choose to use concept mapping software rather than a word processor. In a high school mathematics class, while studying how a sin wave forms and what it represents, using a graphing calculator rather than drawing on a whiteboard is a better choice. TCK involves matching the particular technology tool with its particular affordances and constraints to the content.
TPACK is the intersection of all of these spheres of knowledge. This, in the context of their classrooms, is what teachers are doing when they effectively integrate technology. These spheres are interconnected and they are interdependent…changing one will change the others.
CONTEXT is the final factor we have to consider…the TPACK model is situated within the multiple and changing contexts in which we work.
It is important to emphasize that these spheres of knowledge are NOT separate entities…they are all interrelated. The TPACK framework is helpful in thinking about the dynamics of those interrelationships.